Majlis A’shura is elected by the people. It is a financially and administratively independent institution. It is the lower house of Oman Council which enjoys legislative and oversight competences. It aims to serve the country and the nation and participate in the development march. Majlis A’shura consists of members who are representing the different Wilayats of the Sultanate elected by direct secret ballot. The Wilayats shall be represented by two members if the number of its population exceeds 30 thousand and by one member if the population is less than 30 thousand. The membership term shall be four Georgian years. The Chairman and his two deputies are elected from the members.
The Oman Council, with its two chambers, State Council and Majlis A’Shura, has been accorded legislative and oversight competences as per the Royal Decree No. 99/2011. Chapter V of the Basic Statute of the State stipulates the competences promulgated by the Royal Decree No. 101/1996. Majlis A’Shura has the following competences:
- The draft laws prepared by the government shall be referred to Oman Council to adopt or amend them; draft conventions follow the same procedures.
- Oman Council may propose draft laws and refer them to the government to study them, and then send them back to the Council.
- The drafts of the development plans and the annual budget shall be sent by the Council of Ministers to Majlis A’Shura for discussion and put forward its recommendations. This shall be done within a maximum of one month from the date of referral to the Majlis. After that, Majlis A’shura shall refer them to State Council for discussion and recommendations within a period of fifteen days from the date of referral and the Chairman of the State Council shall return the same to the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers shall inform the two Councils with what have not been considered of their recommendations including the reasons.
- The economic and social draft conventions that the government intends to conclude or join shall be referred to Shura Council to put forward its views and findings thereon to the Council of Ministers to take what it deems appropriate.
- Majlis A’shura shall review the annual report of the State Audit Institution.
- Based on a request signed by at least fifteen members, the Council may interpellate any of the services ministers concerning their violation of the law. The Majlis shall discuss this violation, and the results shall be referred to His Majesty.
- The Majlis may review the Services Ministers’ annual reports on the implementation of their projects. The Council may invite any of them to present a statement on some matters within the competences of his ministry; the Majlis may then discuss it with him.
Shura Council shall practice these competences and carry out its duties in accordance with a set of rules and procedures stipulated in its Internal Regulations issued by the Majlis decision No.( 01/2012), as follows:
First: The legislative competences that include:
- Adopting or amending the laws referred by the Council of Ministers to Majlis A’Shura.
- Proposing draft laws; referring them to the government for consideration and then returning them to the Council in the form of draft laws.
Second: The oversight competences that include:
The Majlis shall practice its oversight parliamentary tools that include:
Membership and Candidacy:
- Urgent Statement
- Cognizance Request
- Request for Discussion
- Discussion of Ministerial Statements
- Facts-Finding Committee
Majlis A’Shura consists of 85 members representing the Sultanate's Wilayats, elected once every four years. The election term starts from the date of its first meeting following the inauguration of the new term of Oman Council by His Majesty the Sultan. Each member represents a Wilayat if its population does not exceed thirty thousand during that period, as per the Internal Regulations governing the elections of the Council.
Every Omani man and woman shall have the right to stand for election of Majlis A’shura and to participate in the election of its members in accordance with the approved conditions, in addition to having the right to vote.
Voters related conditions:
Conditions for Majlis A’shura membership Candidacy:
- Shall be Omani
- Shall have completed twenty-one Gregorian years on the first day of January of the election year.
- Shall be on the election register; this requires that the voter is originally from the Wilayat or a resident based on the address written on his/her identity card or on the data recorded in the Civil Status.
The member who finishes his term may stand as candidate again for the Majlis A'Shura membership.
- Shall be of Originally Omani nationality
- Shall not be less than 30 Gregorian years of age on commencement date of candidature.
- Shall hold an academic degree not less than general education certificate.
- Shall not be sentenced in a criminal case or in a moral turpitude case even in case of rehabilitation.
- Shall be on the election register.
- Shall not be placed under guardianship as per a court judgement.
- Shall not have mental illness.
- Shall not be affiliated to a security or military authority.
- Majlis A'shura membership term shall be for four years, renewable thereafter. It shall not be permissible to combine the membership of Majlis A'shura, State Council, and public jobs. Duties and rights of membership shall be determined from the date of taking the oath at the extraordinary sitting at which the Majlis meets.
- Majlis A'shura shall convene upon an invitation by His Majesty Sultan Qaboos in sitting prior to the first session set for election of the Majlis Chairman and his two deputies for the same period. The election process shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures provided in the Internal Regulations. The election shall be by direct secret ballot and with absolute majority of the Majlis members.